I 6 '
^ 1451. 3*1
G-in/e: n B y
CoWm%SS^tf o^ (W«ia\ S^MjM^
SIXTH ANNUAL EEPOET
Commissioner of Animal Industry.
Fob the Year ending November 30, 1917.
BOSTOft! ' ;
WRIGHT & ?OT$&R l->RWtiNG CO., STATE PRINTERS,
32 DERNE STREET.
Publication of this Document
approved by the
Supervisor of Administration.
®tje Commontoealtt) of Jtta00act)U0ette-
Department of Animal Industry,
Boston, Dec. 1, 1917.
To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives.
In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608,
Acts of 1912, I have the honor, as Commissioner of Animal
Industry, to present the report of the Department's work for
the year ending Nov. 30, 1917.
The Department of Animal Industry is charged with the
duty of inspection and examination of animals within the
Commonwealth; the quarantining and killing when necessary
of animals affected with, or which have been exposed to,
contagious disease; the burial or other disposal of their car-
casses; the cleansing and disinfection of districts, buildings or
places where contagion exists or has existed. It is also charged
with the duty of tuberculin testing all neat cattle shipped
from other States to Massachusetts, unless the same are in-
tended for immediate slaughter, or are accompanied by a
record of test made by a veterinarian approved by the live-
stock official of the State from which they are shipped, and
the record is accepted by the Commissioner on arrival of the
The control and eradication of contagious diseases among
live stock constitute an important economic factor in the
material prosperity of many citizens of the Commonwealth.
They are also very necessary to successful agriculture, and are
closely related to the maintenance and protection of the public
health, for the reason that many diseases affecting animals
are communicable to the human subject. Our dependence upon
domestic animals for food material calls attention to the im-
portance of the Department's work in reducing the number
of cases of bovine tuberculosis, the prevention of diseases
among swine, the repression of glanders in horses, of rabies in
4 ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. [Jan.
dogs, and of various other diseases common to animal and man,
and in the present emergency of war it has a special relation
to the conservation of food.
The prevalence of contagious disease among animals whose
carcasses if healthy would be utilized for food operates to
reduce the available supply, and when we consider that the
carcasses of half a million animals were condemned in the
United States during the year 1916 as unfit for human food,
we realize what a large part contagious disease among live
stock plays in increasing its cost. If tuberculosis affecting
cattle and cholera affecting swine (taking these diseases as
examples) were entirely stamped out, half a million carcasses
would be yearly added to the food supply, together with many
others whose production the saving of that large number of
animals would make possible.
Early in the present year the relation of our work to the
successful prosecution of the great war was realized. It seemed
that one great problem to be solved in this country was the
production of food in sufficient quantities not only to maintain
our own people at home and our armies to be sent abroad,
but also the production of immense additional quantities for
exportation to our allied countries, necessary to them in the
maintenance of their armies and their civilian populations,
which already w r ere being restricted in their use of many
different kinds of food, and especially of animal food.
Our conception of this Department's duties in this emer-
gency was that of being especially watchful for the appearance
of any condition operating against the continued propagation
oi food-producing animals in this Commonwealth, and also of
doing everything possible to increase the amount of animal
food products usually available under normal conditions. To
this end, therefore, we considered that our activities should
be specially employed in the carrying out of measures for the
prevention of diseases in live stock, and in persistent control
of such contagious diseases as were then prevalent.
Beef and pork being the kinds of animal food the conser-
vation of which is especially necessary at this time, the De-
partment has been striving to improve the conditions under
which neat cattle and swine are kept, and to control and if
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5
possible eradicate the diseases most prevalent among them,
namely, tuberculosis affecting neat cattle and cholera affecting
The prevalence of contagious or infectious abortion in Mas-
sachusetts herds is of very great concern to owners of cattle
which are kept for the production of milk and for the raising
of pure-bred stock. It is estimated by the Bureau of Animal
Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture that
this disease with its attendant conditions is costing the cattle
owners of the country more than $20,000,000 a year by de-
crease in the amount of dairy products and the non-production
of animals. In economic importance it is second only to
tuberculosis, and investigation as to its prevalence in Massa-
chusetts discloses the fact that we are suffering in common
with other sections of the country. I think considerable
progress is, however, being made in the study of the cause
and development of this disease, and of the many correlating
physical conditions affecting or influencing its development.
Effective measures in prevention seem at the present time to
be limited to regular and thorough disinfection of barns and
places where susceptible animals are kept; antiseptic treat-
ment of pregnant animals approaching, during and following
parturition; destruction of all material which might carry in-
fection; and prophylactic treatment of all male and female
animals at the time of breeding. This Department is pre-
pared at the present time to make laboratory examinations
of material submitted for the purpose of diagnosis, and is
experimenting in a small way in the production of a vaccine
for use in preventive treatment. Our work in this direction,
however, has not 1 yet been sufficiently extensive to warrant an
unqualified opinion as to the effectiveness of the product. The
United States Bureau of Animal Industry is continuing its
investigation as to the cause, mode of dissemination and proper
treatment of this condition, and we have reason to believe
that its continued work in this direction will finally result in
finding additional practical methods of combating this menace
to the dairy industry of the country.
The importance and necessity of a laboratory organized and
equipped for the special work of this Department has very
6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
plainly presented itself during the past year. The develop-
ment of the Department's work in connection with contagious
diseases of animals has led us into many different kinds of
special work which can only be done in a laboratory. Many
conditions arise with which we are unfamiliar, prompt diag-
noses of which are important in order that plans to be followed
in disease control ma} r be properly formulated. The services
of a trained bacteriologist and pathologist under direct super-
vision of the Commissioner should be promptly available in
such cases. We are fortunate in having among our agents
one who has had special training along this line, and who,
although having direct supervision of an important branch of
the work of the Department, has nevertheless been able to
serve us efficiently in the capacity mentioned. A wide ex-
perience has rqade him perfectly familiar with field conditions,
and on this account he is especially valuable in this work.
A room has been kindly furnished us by the Harvard Medical
School, rent free, in which more or less work has been accom-
plished during the past few months. We have been able not
only to examine many specimens submitted for diagnosis by
agents of the Department and private veterinarians, but also
to prepare special biological products, such as tuberculin and
mallein, for use in special emergency cases, and to do more or
less experimental work looking to the increased value of the
Department's efforts in the control and eradication of disease.
It seems to me that the time is at hand when the importance
and value of this particular branch of our service must be
recognized and its development provided for.
The routine laboratory work of the Department in con-
nection with diagnosis of rabies in dogs and glanders in horses
is now being done for us by the State Department of Health.
That department, however, while rendering valuable service in
our routine work, is not equipped to render the special emer-
gency service referred to above.
As it frequently happens that no person is acting as in-
spector of animals in a certain city or town, owing to death,
resignation, or failure on the part of town officials to nomi-
nate, and during such period an outbreak of contagious disease
occurs, an emergency thereby arises which requires the serv-
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7
ices of a quarantining officer. I therefore recommend that
the authority, powers and duties of the Commissioner, his
agents and assistants, be enlarged to include the authority,
powers and duties of an inspector of animals, in order that
the public health and live-stock interests of the Common-
wealth may be at all times protected.
An amendment of the section of the law relating to the
quarantining of animals is recommended, particularly refer-
ring to the requarantining of animals which have been released
on order of the Commissioner. An animal is released from
quarantine only after careful examination by one of the De-
partment's veterinarians, whose report is that in his opinion
it is not affected with the disease for which it was quarantined.
In order that owners of animals which have been so released
may not be soon again subjected to the inconvenience and
expense of quarantine restrictions, my recommendation is that
the amendment shall provide that an animal so released shall
not be requarantined during a period of thirty days imme-
diately following such release, except upon order of the Com-
Section 28 of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws, as amended,
defines what diseases shall be considered contagious. Owing
to the rapid progress in medical and sanitary science, in my
opinion " contagious diseases," instead of being listed by com-
mon names applied thereto, should be defined as any conta-
gious, infectious or communicable disease. If scientific investi-
gation should suggest a change in the present nomenclature
of communicable diseases, no act would then necessarily have
to be passed in order that the wording of the law might be
in strict accordance with the best usage of scientific terms.
The regulation of the transportation of interstate cattle to
Massachusetts is one requiring constant attention by agents
of the Department in order that violation of such regulations
by unscrupulous persons may be prevented. In the majority
of cases interstate shipments are made strictly in accordance
with the provisions of the Department's orders relating thereto,
the greater portion of the people engaged in cattle traffic being
at the present time very well informed as to the requirements.
Occasionally, however, we find persons engaged in the business
ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
of trading cattle and driving them over the State line who
have persistently violated our regulations, although well in-
formed regarding them, and it then becomes necessary to take
legal action against the offenders. During the past year we
have adopted at certain border points severe restrictive meas-
ures applying to this traffic, on account of information re-
ceived regarding violations, and in two instances it was found
advisable to prosecute suspected individuals. In these two
instances convictions of the guilty parties were readily obtained
and substantial fines were imposed by the court, the result in
both cases being an immediate and strict compliance with the
orders and regulations of the Department..
The holding of the Ea stern States Exposition in Springfield
in October of this year was considered as of great advantage
to our live-stock interests, and the management was early
informed that this Department would render every assistance
possible in making the exposition a success. Two agents of
the Department were detailed for duty at the exposition
grounds to assist in the identification and examination of
horses and cattle shipped interstate to and from the expo-
sition. The same service has been rendered at other large
exhibitions of live stock, notably at Brockton and Worcester.
Too much cannot be said as to the good effect of these exhi-
bitions of high-grade animals. They are of great educational
value to all observers, of great convenience to intending pur-
chasers of pure-bred cattle, sheep and hogs, and must be
considered a very great aid to the progressive development of
our agricultural and live-stock interests. No cases of con-
tagious disease appeared at these exhibitions, and the care
of the animals and the sanitary conditions maintained were in
every instance found to be above criticism, indicating very
efficient management of these enterprises.
The prevalence of tuberculosis in Massachusetts cattle has
been extensive and widespread for many years, and until re-
cently efforts to reduce its yearly toll have been somewhat
discouraging. The finding of large numbers of tubercular ani-
mals every succeeding year, notwithstanding the killing of
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9
many cases the year previous, proved that the general situ-
ation was not improving; that no substantial progress was
being made in eradication of the disease.
The law provides that tuberculin cannot be used as a diag-
nostic agent on Massachusetts cattle except at request of
owner. It therefore seemed necessary to advance to a higher
efficiency the methods available for the purpose of diagnosis,
to improve if possible the annual inspection of bovine animals
which is made by town and city inspectors, and to make a
more general application of the rule of the Department re-
quiring physical examination by competent men of cattle ex-
posed to tuberculosis.
Accordingly, in 1915 all agents of the Department engaged
in the examination of quarantined animals were instructed, in
the event of their finding tubercular animals in a herd, to
immediately make a thorough physical examination of all the
animals in the herd, and if any were found which could be
suspected of disease to have them placed in quarantine and
disposed of in accordance with our customary procedure. By
these herd examinations additional cases have frequently been
found which by former methods would not have been dis-
covered, but would have remained as active centers of in-
fection and continued to spread the disease. We have fre-
quently found that a continuous prevalence of this infection
has been maintained on certain premises for a long time.
Tuberculous animals would be found at every successive visit
to these premises, and eradication of disease at that point was
not being accomplished.
As a result, however, of our improved methods, especially
the examination of every animal in herds from which a tuber-
cular member had been removed, we already find a distinct
improvement in the situation. This result could not reason-
ably have been expected to appear until the changed methods
had been in operation for a somewhat extended period, for
the reason that the first effect would undoubtedly be an in-
crease in the number of animals quarantined, as well as in
the number finally disposed of as tubercular.
Physical examinations have been made by Department agents
this year of 14,027 bovine animals, an increase of 2,584 over
in ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
the record of 1916, and notwithstanding the larger number
examined a much smaller number were found suspected of
disease. One thousand three hundred and eighty-two animals
were put in quarantine this year, which, compared with 1,678
quarantined in 1916, shows a decrease of 17 per cent. The
record of suspected animals reported (not all of them quaran-
tined) from all sources, namely, by owners, inspectors of
animals, veterinarians and agents of the Department, shows
also a marked decrease, 1,885 having been reported in 1916
and 1,719 during 1917, a decrease of 8.8 per cent.
Post-mortem examinations are held on all animals condemned
and killed on account of being suspected of tuberculosis, and
the record of such post-mortem examinations of Massachusetts
cattle during 1917 shows a reduction of 10 per cent, in the
number of positive cases found. Another study of our sta-
tistics shows that whereas 12 per cent, of all cattle examined
by Department agents during the year 1916 were found to
be tubercular, that percentage this year has been reduced
from 12 to 8, which certainly shows a rapid diminution in the
prevalence of tuberculosis in the course of a single year among
animals the majority of which have been examined physically.
Considering the decrease in one year of 8.8 per cent, in the
number of cases reported from all sources, the decrease of 17
per cent, in the number of suspected animals quarantined, the
decrease of approximately 10 per cent, in the number of cases
found positive on post-mortem examination, and a reduction
from 12 to 8 per cent, of cases found in the thousands of bovine
animals examined by Department agents, I think it should be
recognized that a marked improvement in the general situa-
tion is already taking place. At the same time, these records
lead us to believe that our methods of control within the lim-
itations imposed by law have been distinctly improved, and
that the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis is susceptible of a
certain degree of limitation if careful and repeated physical
examination is made by competent men of all cattle exposed
to the disease.
It is generally recognized by all scientific authorities that
the tuberculin test carefully applied by competent veterina-
rians is the most accurate method of determining whether or
not an animal is affected with tuberculosis; that it will dis-
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11
close many cases not found by physical examination, and will
reveal the existence of the disease in many animals not even
suspected. The advantages of the tuberculin-test method of
diagnosis are made use of by the Department in its Work of
eradication of tuberculosis, although its use on Massachusetts
cattle is limited by law to animals whose owners consent to
its application, and to such as have been reported as tuber-
culous on physical examination by a competent veterinarian.
We find an increasing number of Massachusetts cattle owners
requesting the application of the test to their herds by the
Department, this service being rendered without charge. We
find, also, that many more veterinarians than formerly are
reporting results of tests made by them in a private capacity,
and referring the cases of reacting animals to the Department
for disposal. The Department tests all cattle arriving from
other States at Brighton and all other points, which are not
accompanied by a properly approved and satisfactory test
record made in the State from which the animals are shipped,
the testing of such interstate cattle being one of the important
activities of the Department.
In July of this year the United States Department of Agri-
culture offered its assistance in the testing of pure-bred herds,
in co-operation with agents detailed by our Department for
the same service. This work, now being done by the United
States Bureau of Animal Industry in co-operation with this
Department, is directed toward the eradication of tuberculosis
from the herds which supply breeding stock, and upon its
successful accomplishment there is contemplated the establish-
ment of a register or list of accredited herds of tuberculosis-
free animals from which buyers may procure foundation stock
without test at time of purchase, depending on certification by
Federal authorities to the effect that the herd in question is
All of the different agencies mentioned — namely, thorough
annual inspection by local town and city inspectors, followed
by quarantine of suspected cases; careful successive physical
examinations by competent men of infected herds, followed by
slaughter of clinical cases; tuberculin testing by Department
agents and by private veterinarians, followed by slaughter of
the animals reacting to the test, or by complete isolation or
12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
segregation; testing of all interstate cattle arriving at what-
ever points, followed by the killing of those not passing the
test; eradication of disease from pure-bred herds by Federal
authorities working in co-operation with this Department —
contribute to a record of decrease in the prevalence of tuber-
culosis in Massachusetts herds. It is reasonable to predict
that if these agencies are continued in force, and are efficiently
and persistently applied, they will continue to lower the yearly
toll of this insidious destroyer of animal life.
Following are various tables showing the extent of the work
of the Department in connection with the control of tubercu-
losis in Massachusetts for the year ending Nov. 30, 1917: —
Cattle reported as diseased in 1916 disposed of in 1917, . 27
Cattle reported as diseased during the year ending Nov. 30,
Reported by inspectors, Department agents, veterinarians,
owners, etc. (20 reported in 1916, 1,382 in 1917), . . 1,402
Condemned on physical examination (11 re-
ported in 1916, 994 in 1917), .... 1,005
Condemned on physical examination, no lesions, 10
Permit to kill, lesions of tuberculosis found (3
reported in 1916, 36 in 1917), .... 39
Permit to kill, no lesions, 41
Died before action could be taken (1 reported in
1916, 30 in 1917), 31
Released, not tubercular (5 reported in 1916,266
in 1917), 271
Awaiting action, 5
Reactors reported on private tests (2 reported in 1916,
200 in 1917), 202
Condemned on physical examination, ... 12
Permit to kill, lesions found (2 reported in 1916,
133 in 1917), 135
Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 22
Died before action could be taken, ... 1
Released showing no clinical symptoms, . . 32
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13
Voluntary Request. ■
Reacting to so-called " voluntary request" tests (5 tested
in 1916, 111 in 1917), 116
Permit to kill, lesions found (5 of 1916 test, 104
of 1917), 109
Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 5
Died before action taken, ..... 1
Awaiting action, ....... 1
United States Test.
Reacting to test made under supervision of United States, 26
Permit to kill, lesions found, 26
The preceding table is a record of the actual disposition
of cattle reported under the three headings of "quarantined
animals," "reactors reported on private test," and "reactors
found on so-called voluntary-request tests," while following is
a tabulation of work actually accomplished under the voluntary-
request test and reacting animals actually reported during the
year 1917 by private veterinarians. The difference in the two
tables referring to private tests is due to the fact that some
of the cattle recorded in the 1916 report as being released
were killed during 1917 on "permit to kill" form of warrants
by request of the owners of the cattle, the cattle showing no
clinical symptoms of disease.
Premises on which tests were made, 28
Number of animals tested, 561
Number of animals tested more than once, 179
Number of reactors, 151
Disposition of Reactors.
Killed, lesions found, 109
Killed, no lesions found, 5
Died, no post-mortem examination made, 1
Killing order issued, not yet killed, 1
Awaiting action, 35
14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
Reactors reported on Private Tests.
Number of herds in which animals were reported, .... 92
Number of animals tested, . . . 1,660
Number of reactors, 382
Disposition of Reactors.
Disposed of by owner, no record of post-mortem findings, . . 109
Condemned on physical examination, 12
Died, no post-mortem examination made, 1
Killed, lesions found, 125
Killed, no lesions found, 7
Showing no physical symptoms of tuberculosis, no record of dis-
position, . . . . . . . 128
The following figures show the total number of cattle owned
in Massachusetts examined or tested by agents of the Depart-
ment, and the disposition of those found suspected of disease.
Massachusetts Cattle examined by Agents.
Physical examination (1,065 herds), 13,466
Tuberculin tested, . 561
Number killed on physical examination, 1,044
Number killed on tuberculin test, 109
Percentage of tubercular animals in total number physically ex-
amined and tuberculin tested, 8
Attention is called to the fact that a larger number of ani-
mals have been examined than in 1916, and that the per-
centage of tubercular animals found among them has been
reduced from 12 to 8. This reduction in one year is especially
noticeable, and shows that tuberculosis among bovine animals
in Massachusetts is probably decreasing rapidly.
PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98.
There were ten permits issued in 1916 for bringing cattle
from out of the State which were not reported upon till 1917,
and in addition there were 20 instances where animals brought
in on permits were held and tested in 1917; the total number
on these permits comprised 26 head tested before shipment,
139 tested after arrival, 1 beef animal, 3 calves, and 2 Massa-
chusetts animals that had been out of the State temporarily.
These figures are included in the total given below.
Cattle held from 1916 at Brighton, retested in 1917, . 34
Cattle tested at the quarantine station at Brighton, . 12,215
Cattle accepted ©n approved test made in other States: —
Received at Brighton, ..... 1,164
Received at other points, .... 4,045
Cattle tested by agents of the Department at points other
than the quarantine station, 4,224
Cattle awaiting test, 93
Disposition of Above Cattle.
Cattle reacting and killed, lesions found, . . 210
Cattle reacting and killed, no lesions found, . 34
Permit to kill, lesions found, .... 35
Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 22
Cattle released as free from tuberculosis, . . 13,107
Awaiting retest, 5
At Other Points.
Cattle reacting and killed, lesions found, . . 91
Cattle reacting and killed, no lesions found, . 8
Permit to kill, lesions found, .... 11
Permit to kill, no lesions found, .... 5
Condemned, awaiting report of post-mortem
Cattle released as free from tuberculosis, . . 8,130
Awaiting test or retest, 110
There were 556 cattle at Brighton held for a second test,
255 of which were later released.
Of the dairy cattle received at Brighton and accepted on
tests made in other States, <)72 came from New Hampshire,
10 from Maine, 47 from Vermont and 135 from New York.
The following statistics show in detail the record of inter-
state cattle received at points in the State other than the
quarantine stations: —
Report of Cottle brought into State during the Year to Points Other than the
For dairy and breeding purposes, tested before shipment, 4,045
For dairy and breeding purposes, tested after arrival, . 4,224
For dairy and breeding purposes, awaiting test, . . 93
Xeat cattle on which no test was required, classified as
follows : —
Cattle for immediate slaughter,
Calves for immediate slaughter,
Dairy calves under six months old,
Cattle returned from out-of-State pastures,
Died before test could be made,
Returned from sales or exhibitions in other States,
Returned from temporary stay in other States for
other purposes, '
Remaining in State for brief periods onty, for breeding
For temporary stay at sales or exhibitions (at Spring-
field 368, at other places 268),
Total for all purposes,
There are large slaughtering establishments at Haverhill,
West Newbury and Springfield where Federal inspection of
slaughtered animals is maintained, to which points cattle and
calves for immediate slaughter can be shipped without special
permit, record of which is not kept by this Department.
There are on an average several thousand animals shipped to
these points during the year.
Of the animals brought into State for purpose of sale or
exhibition, 368 went to the Eastern States Exposition at
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17
Springfield, which took place in October. There were also at
this exposition 175 head of valuable cattle belonging to Massa-
chusetts owners. All of the New England States were repre-
sented at the exposition, and there were cattle from New
York, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Iowa. The follow-
ing breeds of cattle were represented: Milking Shorthorn,
Holstein, Guernsey, Jersey, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Shorthorn,
Hereford, Angus and Fat Cattle.
Nearly all of the total number of animals coming to points
other than the quarantine stations came in on permits issued
by the head of the Department; 528 head were brought in
unaccompanied by permits, having been reported to the De-
partment by railroad agents, local inspectors and others. Of
this number,* 216 were accompanied by acceptable records of
test, 179 were tested by agents of the Department, and the
remainder were for immediate slaughter or other purpose not
There were 1,403 permits issued during the year for bring-
ing cattle from other States to points outside of the quarantine
Forty-eight permits were issued allowing cattle to be brought
into the State for exhibition purposes, and four allowing cattle
to be returned from exhibition in other States. Nine permits
were issued allowing cattle to be pastured in the State during
the summer season; five permits were issued to persons living
near the border line for returning cattle from out-of-State
pastures from time to time during the season without being
tested or tagged; and two permits were issued allowing oxen
to be worked on the border line temporarily without test.
One hundred and eighty-nine of the permits were not used,
and eighteen on which no report had been received at the
close of the year were carried over and will be included in the
report of the next succeeding year.
During the spring and early summer Massachusetts veteri-
narians or agents of the Department tagged 871 head of cattle
that were to be sent into other States for pasture during the
season, mostly into New Hampshire. Tag numbers are kept
on the files of the Department in order that these animals
may be identified upon returning to their home State in the
fall. Many of them wore brought to the Brighton Stock-
yards and released there; others were returned to premises of
owners in other parts of the State.
The Department keeps records of all animals received at the
several quarantine stations; also the States from which neat
cattle are shipped, as shown by the following figures: —
Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stockyards for the Year ending Nov. 30,
New Hampshire cattle, ....
Massachusetts cattle, .....
. . . . 21,752
Sheep and lambs,
Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 80, 1917.
Maine cattle, 1,795
New Hampshire cattle,
Western cattle, .
Canada cattle, .
Sheep and lambs,
Swine (at Squire's, 589,103; at North's, 545,000),
Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1917.
Maine cattle, 9,810
New Hampshire cattle,
New York cattle,
Western cattle, .
Canada cattle, .
Sheep and lambs,
Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended
by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com-
PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98.
panies to report to this Department cases of glanders, farcy
or tuberculosis found by them, and the information thus fur-
nished is of considerable value in bringing to the attention of
the Department cases of these diseases which otherwise would
not be known. A table of reports of rendering companies
follows : —
Reports of Rendering Companies.
Number of cases of
Glanders not pre-
Number of cases of
W. H. Abbott, Holyoke
Ayer Rendering Company,
C. S. Bard, Haverhill, ....
Butchers' Rendering Company, Fall River,
Home Soap Company, Millbury,
Lowell Rendering Company,
A. G. Markham, Springfield,
James E. McGovern, Andover, .
Muller Brothers, Cambridge,
William H. Nankervis, Marlborough,
New Bedford Extractor Company, .
New England Rendering Company,
P. J. O'Donnell & Son, Woonsocket, R. I.,
Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company,
R. & B. Tallow Company, Saugus, .
Rand & Byam, Charlestown,
N. Roy & Son, South Attleborough,
N. Roy, Jr., Fall River
Sherborn Rendering Company, . - .
Springfield Rendering Company,
N. Ward Company, Boston,
Whitman & Pratt Rendering Company,
S. Winter Company, Brockton,
Worcester Rendering Company,
Wunsch Manufacturing Company, Paw-
tucket, R. I.
For several years, at the request of the United States De-
partment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of
all live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each
month. The following table shows the receipts by months for
the past year: —
Receipts of Lire Stock at the Stockyards in Boston and Vicinity for Twelve
Months ending Nov. 30, 1917.
For Month of —
The control of glanders among horses and mules in Massa-
chusetts is a branch of the Department's work requiring con-
stant attention. On account of the money loss it causes, and
its danger to human life, the prevalence of this disease must
be limited by every means at our command, and ultimate
extermination accomplished if possible.
The Department's records for the eighteen years previous to
1917 show that glanders caused an average yearly loss of 731
animals in that period, and that in one year (1913) 1,084 were
killed on account of being affected.
These records show the economic necessity for control and
eradication, and although the number of deaths of persons
infected with this disease by horses is a small one, it is never-
theless regrettable that even one human life should be lost by
PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98.
We are glad to be able to show by our records for this year
that the prevalence of glanders in Massachusetts is being
rapidly limited, there having been a reduction of 34 per cent,
from the record of 1916 in the number of positive cases found,
which number also shows that fewer horses or mules have this
year been condemned on account of the disease than in any
one of the nineteen constituting the tabulated record.
The Department's records for the year ending Nov. 30, 1917,
show the following facts : —
At the end of 1916, 39 animals were under observation. Of
this number, 16 have been killed as positive cases, 11 have been
released as free from the disease, 4 died or were killed before
final diagnosis was made, and 8 are still held under observation.
During the past year 1,384 animals have been reported as
being suspected of having glanders. Of this number, 270
animals proved to be positive cases, and were destroyed in
accordance with the requirements of the law; 21 died or were
killed by owners before diagnosis had been made; 1,067 were
released as free from the disease; and 23 were still held under
observation at the end of the year. Three animals were killed
by order of the Department, post-mortem examination of which
did not reveal the presence of the disease, and full appraised
value of the same ($490) Was paid to the owners.
Horses reported as Suspected.
Brought forward from year 1916,
Arriving from outside of State and condemned,
Reported by Tenderers,
Reported by inspectors, Department agents, veterinarians,
Disposition of Above Horses.
Appraised and killed, positive, v .
Killed, of no market value, positive,
Reported by Tenderers, positive, . '.
Killed by owners, no award, positive, .
Appraised and killed, no lesions, .
Killed by owners or died, no lesions, .
Released as not affected with glanders,
Awaiting disposition, .
Following is a table giving the number of cases of this
disease covering a period of nineteen years. In this table
cases which have occurred in the city of Boston are shown
separately, on account of the fact that Boston was for many
years the storm center of this disease. Special tabulation of
the number of cases in that city has always been made in order
that its relative importance to other sections of the State may
X umber of Case*.
As shown by the above table, there has been a marked de-
crease in the number of cases this year. Several factors con-
tribute to this decrease, the most potent ones undoubtedly
being, first, the limitation of spread of the disease from one
animal to another, which has been accomplished in many in-
stances, probably, by the closing of all public watering troughs
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23
in sections where outbreaks have occurred; and second, the
more general application to all exposed animals of the differ-
ent diagnostic tests now available, followed by the prompt
killing of such as are deemed to be positive cases.
If an unusual prevalence of glanders occurs in any one stable
it is our present practice to apply one or both of the tests now
in use to all other horses kept on those premises. In this way
we frequently disclose hidden or occult cases which would have
escaped detection on ordinary physical examination, and which,
not being observed, would not have been destroyed and would
have continued to spread the infection.
Our post-mortem examinations of these occult cases reveal
the existence of the disease in such a large percentage of cases
as to seemingly establish the reliability of the tests and war-
rant their continued use as diagnostic aids. The tests now
used are the ophthalmic mallein, or so-called "eye test," and
the laboratory examination of samples of blood drawn from
the animal's jugular vein, or the so-called " blood test." This
year the laboratory examination of samples of blood has in-
cluded the agglutination test in addition to the complement-
fixation test, with the object of checking each test by the other
and studying any differences which may be noted, thereby
enabling us to make a more satisfactory decision in cases which
for any reason are doubtful.
In the so-called "stable tests," or tests of all animals in
stables where glanders has been found, 1,112 horses have been
tested in 64 stables, and among them 79 cases of glanders
have been found which would have escaped detection by the
ordinary physical examination, as they showed no clinical
symptoms of the disease. These figures show that we have
increased "stable testing" 84 per cent, during the past year.
The Department has continued the policy of promptly kill-
ing all animals showing clinical symptoms of glanders, of dis-
infecting the premises where they have been stabled, the
blacksmith shops in which they were shod, and the public
watering troughs where they were in the habit of drinking.
To effectively aid in the complete disinfection of premises
from which diseased animals have been removed, owners have
been requested to tear out mangers, loose boarding and such
24 ANIMAL ENDUSTRY. [Jan.
other portions of the stall as the animals had come in close
contact with, or upon which might have been deposited any
discharges from their respiratory passages. We have required
that this disinfection be attended to by the owners of the
premises before approving their claims for reimbursement.
Animals which for any reason have been suspected of being
diseased, either because of having been in contact with other
diseased animals or as a result of the different tests, but which
have not shown sufficient clinical symptoms to warrant con-
demnation, have in some instances been quarantined, fre-
quently examined, and allowed to work under certain restric-
tions. We have found in some instances that contact animals
apparently in perfect health have temporarily reacted to one
of the tests applied, and at a later date have ceased to react
to the same. It has therefore not been thought justifiable to
kill valuable animals which, having reacted to only one of the
tests above mentioned, did not also show clinical symptoms
and appeared to be in a good condition of health. These
so-called temporary reactors have, however, been carefully
watched, subjected to frequent tests, and, upon reacting per-
sistentlv to either one or both of the tests, have been de-
st roved. Autopsies have been made on condemned animals in
every case where there has been any conflict of the different
tests, and in all other cases where practicable.
The use of subcutaneous mallein for the testing of suspected
animals is not advised by the Department, for the reason
that it may interfere with the correctness of any r blood test
subsequently thought advisable.
At the present time, in 31 cities and towns of the Com-
monwealth, the public watering troughs have either been closed
or entirely eliminated, as an aid in preventing spread of the
In my opinion the closing of the public drinking places for
animals has operated to limit the spread of contagious diseases
other than glanders, and the practice of watering animals from
individual pails is one to be encouraged from the standpoint
of the control, not only of glanders, but also of many other
diseases of a contagious character. We find that horse owners
and team drivers are already acknowledging the beneficial re-
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25
suits of this method of watering animals under their charge,
and do not think it advisable to return to the former method
of making use of the public troughs.
Another factor in the suppression of glanders is the disin-
fection of blacksmith shops. Following the condemnation of
an animal affected with this disease the proprietor of the black-
smith shop in which this particular animal was shod has been
directed to immediately disinfect the premises. Frequent in-
spection of blacksmith shops by agents of the Department
has undoubtedly been a factor in securing repeated disinfec-
tion by their owners or occupants, and without doubt this
practice has limited the prevalence of this disease to a great
degree. Ninety-six inspections of blacksmith shops have been
made during the year, and instructions given relative to dis-
The Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals, the Boston Workhorse Relief Association, the Animal
Rescue League, and the branches of these various associations
in many cities and towns of the State, have through their
agents been of material aid to the Department in the work
of controlling this disease. Their close observation of working
animals of all classes has brought to light many showing
suspicious symptoms, which they have promptly reported to
this Department^ and many of the animals so reported have
proved to be positive cases of the disease.
The constant activity of the humane societies in removing
disabled animals from work, and destroying those which on
account of extreme age or poor condition are no longer useful,
is undoubtedly a factor in the suppression of glanders, as such
animals are very susceptible to this infection.
The maximum amount, fixed by chapter 646 of the Acts
of 1913, which may be paid for any one animal condemned
and destroyed on account of being affected with glanders being
$50, the appraised value of the animals condemned is a sub-
ject of considerable interest. Of the 286 positive cases of
glanders occurring during the year, 266 were appraised at a
total valuation of $40,063, the average amount per animal
being $150.61. On the remaining 20 animals affected with
glanders no appraisal was made for the following reasons:
9 of them were reported by renderers, the disease having been
found on autopsy; 10 died or were killed by owners before
appraisal could be made; and 1 animal killed was of no market
Of the 266 horses appraised no award was allowed on 28,
16 of them being interstate, 5 arriving in Massachusetts with
Federal troops, 4 not having been in the Commonwealth the
required twelve months prior to condemnation, 1 having been
killed by owner after appraisal, and 2 having died while await-
ing result of test. Of the remaining 238 horses which were
appraised, 206 have been paid for, the amount paid being
$10,222, and 32 are awaiting the filing of claims for payment.
Of the 32 horses under observation at the end of the year
1916, 1 was condemned, 4 were released and 2 died, and 25
were subjected to the complement-fixation test, with result
that 11 of them were condemned and killed, 1 died, 7 were
released as probably free from the disease, and 6 are still under
Twelve hundred and six samples of blood were taken from
864 horses during the year 1917, and the following disposition
of the animals was made: —
Animals held over from 1915, disposed of as above,
Animals held over from 1916, disposed of as above,
Animals released on first test,
Released on second test, .
Released on third test, .
Released on fourth test, .
Released on fifth test,
Died or killed by owner after first test,
Died or killed by owner after second test,
Died or killed by owner after third test,
Condemned on first test,
Condemned on second test, .
Condemned on third test,
Condemned on fourth test,
Held for further observation,
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27
This test has been applied to 1,191 horses during the year.
It happens that the test in some instances was repeated on
the same animals, and 1,446 such tests have been made. The
results are as follows : —
Tests giving positive reaction, 239
Tests giving no reaction, 1,061
Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 146
Seven hundred and forty of the samples of blood examined
in the laboratory during the past year have been subjected to
the agglutination test in addition to the complement-fixation
Horses, asses and mules shipped to Massachusetts from the
States of New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island must be
accompanied by a permit from the Commissioner of Animal
Industry. This regulation was established on account of the
prevalence of glanders among the horses of the States men-
tioned, and in order that upon arrival the animals might be im-
mediately located, and examined by agents of this Department.
The number of horses, mules and asses shipped from these
States has increased from 4,500 in the year 1916 to 4,764 in
the year ending Nov. 30, 1917. Among these animals very
few cases of glanders have been found, as shown by the fol-
lowing statistics : —
Equine Animals from New York, Connecticut and Rhode Island.
Mules, _ 9
Disposition of Above Animals.
Died soon after arrival, 2
Condemned as affected with glanders, 16
Released upon physical examination, 3,126
Released after test, 1,620
28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
The small number of animals condemned, as shown by the
above table, is worthy of notice. Many of the animals brought
from the above-mentioned States are of the better class, being
highly bred horses used for carriage work and breeding pur-
poses. The second-hand horses, which are trafficked in and
sent from the markets of one State to those of another for
purpose of public sale, have been specially watched on account
of their being considered more liable to be subjects of con-
tagious disease than the higher class animals, and if not ac-
companied by a satisfactory certificate of test have been tested
on arrival by agents of the Department.
The control and eradication of rabies in dogs is a matter
requiring special attention by this Department, not only on
account of the monetary loss which the disease causes every
year by the death of valuable dogs, but as a public health
measure on account of the communicability of rabies to man.
Every species of domestic animals, many species of wild ani-
mals, and the human subject are susceptible to infection with
this disease, although its general prevalence is among dogs.
In considering the means by which this disease is spread
the dog only need be mentioned, and the ownerless or stray
dog is the one requiring special attention, as he is much more
often a spreader of the disease than is the dog which has
proper care and a good home. The ownerless dog may become
affected with rabies and spread the infection before he is ob-
served to be in an abnormal condition, and, no one being
especially interested in his welfare, it happens that the atten-
tion of the proper authorities is not promptly directed to him.
Unfortunately the dog license laws are not strictly enforced
in all cities and towns, and therefore one great factor in the
control and eradication of this disease is not operative. In
our opinion, if the present laws are more strictly enforced
than they have been hitherto, and the projected dog laws for
the protection of the sheep industry are passed and enforced,
a marked reduction in the number of cases of rabies will result.
Many complications in the control and eradication of in-
fectious diseases among other kinds of animals do not enter
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29
into the control of rabies, for the reason that there is much
less traffic in dogs than in those animals which are used for
production of food material or for business purposes, and also
because their market value is on an average very much less.
It is possible, also, to confine them at much less expense than
larger animals, and they generally endure the restraint with-
out danger to their health. For these reasons, although an
outbreak of rabies causes much inconvenience and trouble to
dog owners, and often subjects public officials to unjust criti-
cism on account of quarantine restrictions necessarily imposed,
nevertheless its control can generally be accomplished by the
prompt co-operation of town and city officials with this De-
partment in the measures directed toward such control.
Following is a general outline of the Department's methods
in this work under the present regulations : —
Upon report being made to the Department of Animal In-
dustry that a person has been bitten by a dog, the inspector
of animals of the town or city in which it occurs is ordered to
make an examination of the animal, and, even if it appears
to be healthy, to have it restrained for a period of fourteen
days for the purpose of observation. This regulation is deemed
necessary for the reason that competent authorities have proven
that in some instances the bite of a dog infected with rabies
may communicate the infection fourteen days before the ani-
mal itself shows clinical symptoms. If at the end of this
period no symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may
be released. In case a person is bitten by a dog which upon
examination by the inspector of animals, or any other person,
shows evidence of already being affected with rabies, this ani-
mal is immediately confined in strict quarantine. If it is sub-
sequently killed or dies, its head is at once sent to the De-
partment's office, and a laboratory examination of the brain
is made for the purpose of confirming the diagnosis. Infor-
mation as to the laboratory findings is promptly communi-
cated to the person or persons who have been bitten. The
State Department of Health is given the information received
in every case of dog bite reported to this office, whether the
bite has been inflicted by an animal suspected of rabies or not.
We also order the local inspector of animals to ascertain not
30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
only the names of all persons who have been bitten by dogs
suspected of rabies, but to find out if animals have also been
bitten, and if so to place the same in quarantine for a period
of at least ninety days. All dogs which are known to have been
in contact with a rabid animal, whether or not it appears that
they have been bitten by it, are also placed in quarantine for
the same period.
If an unusual number of cases of rabies is found to exist
in any town or city, the selectmen or the mayor or board of
aldermen are asked to issue a restraining order, under the
provisions of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws.
Such an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals
to their own premises for a certain period, or take them there-
from only on leash. This restraining order is much more
effective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order
which compels owners only to muzzle the animals but not
restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way
get the muzzle off and bite other animals or people. A muzzled
dog at large may, therefore, become much more dangerous
than an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined upon
owner's premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs
found running at large while a restraining order issued by
town or city authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance
of a warrant for the same to a police officer. It has been
found necessary to issue general restraining orders in five towns
of the Commonwealth during the past year. These orders were
for periods of ninety days.
Our force of district agents, most of whom are veterinarians
located in different parts of the State, together with the local
inspectors of animals, of whom there is one or more in every
city and town of the State, constitutes an organization by which
systematic local control of an outbreak of this disease can gen-
erally be accomplished within a reasonably short time.
During the present year we have been in constant fear of
local outbreaks of this disease on account of its unusual prev-
alence in the neighboring State of Connecticut. In that State
during the past year rabies has prevailed extensively in many
towns west of the Connecticut River, and during the last
months of the year has extended to the northeastern portion
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31
of the State and to many towns contiguous to the Massa-
chusetts line. At the present time dogs in 123 towns of that
State are officially quarantined or restrained on account of the
prevalence of this disease, and a spread of the contagion across
the line to Massachusetts could reasonably be expected. We
find that in the last few months of the present year quite a
few additional cases have been reported in Massachusetts,
the source of which has in many instances been traced to
On Nov. 16, 1917, the following letter was addressed to the
372 inspectors of animals in the various cities and towns of
the Commonwealth : —
A serious situation confronts us at the present time on account of a
threatened invasion of rabies. For a period of more than a year this
disease has prevailed very extensively in our neighboring States of Con-
necticut and Rhode Island. In Connecticut at the present time there
are more than 100 towns in which the dogs are muzzled, restrained or
quarantined, and the contagion seems not yet to be under control.
Owing to the ease by which this disease is spread by stray dogs, it is
reasonable to expect that Massachusetts will experience a more or less
serious outbreak in the near future, and it may be said that already an
unusual prevalence of it is reported from several different towns and
I deem it advisable at this time to call this matter to your especial
attention, so that, having the danger in mind, you may be prepared to
put into execution such methods towards its prevention as may be in
your power. I advise that on every possible occasion you acquaint dog
owners with the situation, and ask them to immediately report to you
any ownerless or stray dogs, and also any which are showing unusual
symptoms of any kind. Such animals should be immediately confined
and securely chained, so that if rabies develops they cannot further spread
the contagion by biting other animals or persons.
If you receive reports of strange dogs having gone through your town
which have been in contact with any others, it would be a measure of
prevention to immediately confine the contact dogs for observation.
Please report promptly any facts in connection with this matter that
may come to your attention, and request advice from this Department
at any time.
It is my opinion that, being forewarned of this threatened outbreak,
inspectors of animals should be ready to take prompt action when the
invasion immediately threatens, and thereby very materially limit its
I have found inspectors of animals specially alert to their
duties in towns where a case of rabies has appeared, and by
prompt action they have undoubtedly limited the extent of a
local outbreak of this disease. We are receiving, also, the
earnest co-operation of dog owners, private veterinarians and
agents of the various humane societies.
During the year ending Nov. 30, 1917, 335 animals were
reported to the Department for diagnosis, observation or quar-
antine on account of the prevalence of rabies, and 12 were
brought forward from the year 1916. The records have been
classified as follows: —
Animals suspected of rabies, 95
Animals exposed to rabies (7 reported in 1916, 107 in 1917), . .114
Animals which have inflicted bites upon persons (5 reported in 1916,
133 in 1917), 138
Animals suspected of Rabies.
Diagnosis positive, ......
Diagnosis questionable, . - .
No diagnosis made,
Referring to the 10 cases in the above table on which the
diagnosis is given as questionable, 6 of these animals disap-
peared, but on account of their having bitten other dogs or
cattle which later developed rabies they have been recorded as
One animal said to have died of indigestion is recorded as
rabies, diagnosis questionable, as another dog which it had
bitten and which had not been in contact with any other
animal developed rabies.
One animal was reported in a newspaper article as having
been affected with the disease. The animal disappeared, and,
positive diagnosis not being possible, it was recorded as a case
of rabies, diagnosis questionable.
PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98.
In one instance a dog was killed supposed to have been
suffering from rabies, but the body having been destroyed,
laboratory examination could not be made.
In another instance the brain of a dog was sent to this office
in such a mutilated condition that examination was impossible.
The clinical symptoms of this case not having been typical of
rabies, it also was recorded as questionable.
Regarding the one animal recorded as "no diagnosis made,"
it was reported by a veterinarian as a suspicious case. The
animal was killed and the body disposed of without examination.
Animals exposed to Rabies.
Number released after a quarantine of ninety days,
Number killed, no symptoms having developed,
Number killed, positive symptoms having developed, .
Number still held under observation,
Animals which have inflicted Bites upon Persons.
Number killed during quarantine, no symptoms having developed,
Number released after fourteen days' quarantine, ....
Number still held under observation, .
Of the 51 rabid dogs in the first classification, 13 had bitten
persons. Of the 10 dogs on which the diagnosis was question-
able, 3 had bitten persons.
Twelve animals which were under observation at the close
of the year 1916 were disposed of during 1917, as follows: —
Dogs killed at request of owners, not having shown symptoms of the
Dogs released from observation, no symptoms having developed, . 8
Cattle released from observation, no symptoms having developed, . 1
There have been examined in the laboratory during the past
year the brains of 64 dogs, 3 cows and 1 pig. Of this number,
26 dogs and 2 cows showed positive evidence of the disease.
In the case of 1 dog the diagnosis was questionable, and in
35 dogs, 1 cow and 1 pig the diagnosis was negative, and the
heads of 2 dogs were so decomposed at time of examination
that no diagnosis could be made. Of the 335 animals reported
for observation, diagnosis or quarantine 32 were, as far as the
Department could determine, unlicensed and ownerless dogs,
10 of which proved to be positive cases of the disease.
The following table shows the number of positive cases of
rabies bv cities and towns: —
City or Town.
Boston (10): —
City or Town.
Our activities in attempting to control and eradicate hog
cholera have increased during the year. Notwithstanding the
fact that we have added three agents to our staff (one of
whom, however, has since joined the Colors and is now in
service in France) the demand for treatment has continued to
grow so rapidly that it has at times taxed our ability to attend
to the applications for treatment as promptly as is our custom.
The work has continued along the same general line which has
been in effect since 1914. Slight improvements in our methods
have been made in accordance with the valuable experience
PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98.
gained in the execution of the work, but in general it has not
been found necessary during the past year to make any radi-
cal departure from our policy. During the year the serum
treatment was administered to 51,222 animals. These animals
represent 753 herds evenly proportioned throughout the State
in 190 cities and towns. The following list shows the cities
and towns in which immunization work has been carried on,
the number of herds, and animals treated in each town: —
City or Town.
City or Town.
Boy Is ton,
City or Town.
City or Town.
Ray n ham,
Since the inception of this work we have repeatedly called
the attention of the public to the fact that the true value of
this process of immunization against hog cholera, as in any
other form of preventive medicine, lies in its application while
the animals are in a healthv condition, rather than after a
herd becomes infected. When this is done there are no losses
from natural infection, the cost of the treatment is minimized,
and, as shown by our statistics, there are practically no losses
following immunization; whereas when the work is postponed
the financial loss entailed by the death of animals which have
not been immunized, together with the cost of the extra amount
of serum necessarily used when infection is present, is con-
siderable. We have anticipated that as these facts became
more apparent to swine owners a smaller proportion would
postpone immunization until infection occurred; and it is ex-
tremely gratifying to be able to show a decided increase in the
number of herds immunized with no infection apparent at the
time the work was done.
PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98.
The following table covering four years is offered in illus-
tration : —
Herds infected at time of treatment, .
Herds apparently healthy at time of treatment,
It will be seen from the preceding table that the number
of herds infected at the time of treatment, as well as the ap-
parently healthy herds, in which the immunization process has
been carried out, has increased. On first reading this table it
might seem that there had been more infected herds each
succeeding year. As a matter of fact, however, although more
are reported, there are actually fewer outbreaks of the disease.
The increase in the number of known infected herds is due to
this fact: a larger number of owners are becoming aware that
immunization will save a large proportion of their animals,
and they therefore report the outbreaks and call for our assist-
ance, whereas formerly this was not done. In this connection
it must be remembered that inasmuch as a large proportion
of Massachusetts swine are garbage-fed, the premises on which
they are kept must be considered as permanently infected, and
that in the larger piggeries hog cholera has been a constant
factor since the inception of the business, which in many cases
extends over a period of twenty-five years.
Recently the owner of one large herd where the swine are
now being immunized, cholera controlled, and losses entirely
prevented informed us that a conservative estimate of his
losses in young pigs from hog cholera for the past twenty-five
years would be at the rate of 2,000 animals per year, or 50,000
animals. Previous to this year he never considered it worth
while to report his outbreaks to the live-stock authorities.
This is given as one of several examples which might be cited
of the practical value of immunization.
The control of hog cholera simply by disinfection and the
"serum only" treatment, under Massachusetts conditions, is
practically impossible. Garbage containing pork scraps is a
38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
means of reinfecting premises almost as soon as disinfection
can be accomplished. The only way to prevent losses from
hog cholera in these garbage-fed herds is, therefore, to keep
all susceptible animals immunized against the disease by the
simultaneous method. In this connection it is interesting to
note that there is every evidence of these herds being infected
at all times, as the following facts will show: —
It is our custom to immunize all the mature stock by the
simultaneous method. Pigs born of sows so immunized are
given the "serum only" treatment when they are six weeks of
age. When these animals are twelve weeks old and weigh 40
pounds or over they are given the simultaneous treatment.
There has been a tendency on the part of some swine owners —
who had always experienced yearly losses from hog cholera,
but who, on account of our immunization work, have had no
losses for a year or two — to believe the disease to be eradi-
cated from their herds, and on that account they do not have
their young pigs promptly immunized at the proper time. We
find in almost every instance of this kind, if young pigs from
immune sows are not given the "serum only" treatment at
six weeks of age, that cholera develops among them; and in
other cases pigs which have been given the "serum only"
treatment at six weeks of age, but which do not receive the
simultaneous treatment when they weigh 40 pounds (at twelve
weeks), promptly develop hog cholera. In these same herds,
where the work is promptly attended to as advised, generation
after generation is raised without having an outbreak of the
In this connection a comparison regarding the length of time
during which passive immunity exists following the "serum
only" treatment will be of interest. We find in Massachusetts
that this passive immunity will generally last for six weeks,
only two exceptions to this rule having been so far found.
We are informed that through the middle west, however, such
immunity lasts as a rule only four weeks, and in the extreme
west it lasts approximately eight weeks.
During the year outbreaks of hog cholera developed in three
herds under circumstances which again illustrate the wisdom
of our policy as adopted three years ago of not administering
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 39
the simultaneous treatment to pigs under 40 pounds. At the
time this policy was adopted it had been found, in almost
every instance where garbage-fed pigs were immunized when
weighing under 40 pounds, that these animals failed to de-
velop an active immunity, but did develop a passive immunity
lasting seldom more than six to twelve months. There were
three herds, however, in which such "breaks" did not occur,
and apparently the animals were permanently immune. Dur-
ing the past year in each of these three herds all the mature
stock which had been immunized when weighing less than 40
pounds developed hog cholera, whereas all of the animals
immunized when weighing 40 pounds or more, although in
contact with the affected animals, failed to develop the disease.
The following table, giving comparative statistics for the
four years in which we have been engaged in this work, pre-
sents the results more concisely than can be done in any other
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42 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
The number of herds treated in most instances represents
more than one visit on the part of our agents. Thus, although
the total number of herds in which immunization was carried
out was 753, this represents 1,541 visits at which animals were
immunized, and approximately 400 visits at which it was
necessary to postpone work on account of unsanitary sur-
roundings or other conditions which would make it inadvisable
to immunize. In addition to the above, approximately 250
visits were made to herds which were reported as infected and
where no treatment was administered.
During the year our co-operation was requested by the
leaders of the different pig clubs throughout the State. Al-
though the majority of the boys and girls belonging to the pig
clubs feed their animals grain rather than garbage, these ani-
mals are in close proximity to garbage-fed herds and to known
infected herds. It was therefore considered wise to advise the
immunization of as many of these pigs as possible. Unfortu-
nately the work was undertaken rather late in the year, and
consequently was not carried through as thoroughly as might
otherwise have been the case. Notwithstanding this fact a
considerable number of animals of this class were immunized,
and inasmuch as in the majority of cases the owner had only
one pig, it can readily be seen that this called for a tremen-
dous amount of work and travel on the part of our agents,
it frequently being necessary to travel several miles to immunize
one pig. Undoubtedly this work will be even greater in the
Attention to the prevalence of secondary infection associated
with hog cholera is becoming increasingly important in our
work. We have less of the acute true septicemic form of hog
cholera and more of the less acute type combined with second-
ary infection than is seen in the west. While this has always
been true it is more apparent at present than at any time
since our work started. This prevalence is due largely to the
fact that garbage-fed swine are as a rule in poorer condition
this year than usual. The entire year just passed has been
a hard one on swine on account of weather conditions, and
their already weakened vitality has been further lowered by
the rapid decrease in the quality of garbage. This renders
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 43
them more susceptible to secondary infection caused by Bacillus
suisepticus, Bacillus suipestifer and Bacillus necrophorus, as well
as to parasitic infestation. This makes our work increasingly
difficult, and indicates the necessity of our agents being able
to diagnose secondary infection clinically. Under such con-
ditions a decided decrease in the mortality following our work
in infected herds is especially worthy of notice.
A perusal of our records for four years' work in herds in
which no infection was apparent at time of treatment should
prove conclusively that there is little or no danger following
the simultaneous treatment in non-infected herds. Attention
should here be called to the fact that in our work as recorded
we have used only serum and virus of the highest standard
possible, and which has passed a thorough bacteriological and
physiological test, and that our technique of administration has
been carefully executed.
The long-continued high price of pork during the latter part
of 1916 gave us every reason to believe that there would be
a decided increase in the number of swine in Massachusetts
during 1917. As anticipated, the demand for young pigs dur-
ing the spring months of 1917 was undoubtedly greater than
any which has ever been . experienced in this State. The de-
mand for six weeks' old pigs, at prices varying from $10 to
$14 per animal, greatly exceeded the supply, and it was at
first believed that this condition would result in a decided
increase in the permanent swine population of the State. As
time progressed, however, and the price of pork was continu-
ously placed higher until it reached the unprecedented figure
of 24 cents per pound, the movement reached the other ex-
treme, and resulted in the slaughter of thousands of animals
which should have been kept for brood purposes. This has,
however, had a tendency to maintain the unusual market for
young pigs, so that the swine population of this State is at
the present time not far from normal.
With the increased number of persons desiring to keep swine
came an increased demand on their part for garbage to be
utilized in the feeding of these animals. This demand was
principally in the neighborhoods or districts where garbage had
previously been disposed of in some other manner. During
H ANIMAL [NDUSTRY. [Jan.
the summer the office of the Department was besieged with
letters from all parts of the country requesting information
regarding garbage feeding. Large numbers of persons who
were in many cases without previous experience in this respect
started piggeries, using garbage for feed. It was thought that
this movement would be beneficial in two ways, — first, in
the better utilization of a waste product; and second, by a
large increase in the amount of native pork available in the
local markets. Most persons undertaking this new venture
have been successful, some extremely so. On the other hand,
some individuals have been unsuccessful, generally due to the
fact that they did not have proper sanitary surroundings or
necessary equipment for sheltering their animals. The matter
is very completely summarized in the following quotation
from a circular issued by the United States Department of
Agriculture on the subject, entitled "Disposal of City Garbage
in Feeding Hogs:" —
If garbage in good condition is fed with proper surroundings, there is
no reason why pork from this source should not compare favorably with
pork from grain-fed hogs.
During the latter part of the year an unlooked-for compli-
cation in the swine industry arose. Both the quantity and the
quality of garbage has decreased very rapidly since August, —
an effect due to the high price of food and the efforts toward
food conservation. This situation is to-day of serious concern
to those who depend largely or entirely on this product as food
for their swine. It is estimated that in many cities the quan-
tity of garbage now being received is from 30 to 40 per cent,
less than the average amount previously obtained. The qual-
ity of garbage, when considered from a food point of view, is
approximately 40 per cent, lower than it was previous to con-
servation efforts. It has been found necessary in almost all
garbage-fed herds to very materially reduce the number of
animals kept. In some instances it has been found necessary
to either sell the herd or to discontinue the feeding of garbage,
inasmuch as its nutritive value does not offset the cost of pro-
curing it. Notwithstanding this, the fact must not be over-
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 45
looked that garbage is extremely valuable as a food for swine,
being probably nearer a balanced ration than any other one
It can be estimated for those who are not familiar with this
method of feeding that ordinary city garbage, if in good con-
dition and maintained so until fed, will cause an increase of 1
pound live weight for every 37| pounds fed, or 1 pound of
dressed weight for every 50 pounds fed. It is stated by those
who are authorities on the subject that pork from prime
garbage-fed swine is of equally good food value, texture and
color as pork from grain-fed animals. On the Boston market,
at least, garbage-fed swine are paid for at the same price per
pound as those which are grain-fed. It is estimated that under
normal conditions 1 ton of garbage per day will care for 100
shoats. The fact should not be overlooked, however, that as
the nutritive value of garbage decreases, the number of ani-
mals which 1 ton would accommodate must correspondingly
decrease. In consideration of the above facts, the utilization
of garbage by feeding to swine should become more general
in many sections of the country where heretofore it has not
been thought practicable.
There are certain factors which should be taken into con-
sideration by the garbage feeder. It should be remembered
that it is practically impossible to feed garbage without the
swine becoming infected with hog cholera, unless these animals
have been immunized against the disease. For this purpose
the following suggestions are made regarding disease control,
all of which have been obtained from our experience in the
execution of our four years' work.
1. The simultaneous treatment is always preferable to the
"serum only" treatment.
2. Swine under 40 pounds should never be given the simul-
3. The virus which is used in immunizing garbage-fed swine
must be the most virulent which can be procured, and larger
doses are advisable than for grain-fed swine.
4. The fundamental principles of immunology must never be
lost sight of, and it should be remembered always that in herds
where garbage has been fed for several years, a highly developed
46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
resistance to the disease has been developed among the mature
stock, and that as a result of this a greater amount of in-
herited immunity is transmitted to the offspring from these
mature animals. In this connection the immunization of
garbage-fed swine is radically different from that of swine
fed on grain.
5. Because of the different nature of the food and the less
sanitary surroundings, Bacillus suisepticus, causing hemorrhagic
septicemia or swine plague, and Bacillus necrophorus, causing
the foot-and-mouth forms of this disease, are ever present,
and are an added menace to the health of these animals.
Anthrax. — This is a disease existing in many different parts
of the world, causing the death of many thousands of animals
and occurring secondarily in man. The infection is found in
horses and also in cattle, sheep and other cloven-hoofed ani-
mals. The most common method of transmission to the human
subject is by the handling of hides taken from animals which
have been infected with the disease.
On an occurrence of an outbreak at any point in the State
it immediately becomes necessary to prevent the spread of the
infection in every way possible, and our work in this direction
consists of a preventive inoculation of all animals on the
premises where a case of the disease is found, and of particular
attention to the destruction of the carcasses of animals which
have died. As the spores of the causative agent of this disease
remain lodged in the soil in an active state for a long time,
we require that entire carcasses be deeply buried and covered
with quicklime, and the surrounding soil burned over and
thoroughly fenced, so that other animals may not graze at
that particular point. Inoculation of the remaining animals is
in a majority of cases effective in immunizing them for a period
of twelve months at least, and therefore this preventive in-
oculation is continued from year to year on many farms where
the disease has once appeared. As infected animals ordinarily
die within a few hours of the onset of the disease, the first
animals attacked in a particular locality all generally die be-
fore treatment can be applied.
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47
During the past year there has been a decrease in the prev-
alence of this disease, only 6 cattle on three different premises
having been found to be affected. Of these 6 animals 1 was
in the town of Berlin, 3 were in Bolton and 2 in Shrewsbury.
The preventive inoculation has been applied to 78 head of
cattle and 9 horses located on five different premises, and from
the fact that our records show such a marked decrease in the
number of cases from previous years we believe that our
efforts in prevention have probably saved quite a few animals
which have been exposed to the same conditions, pasturage
and feed as those which have died.
Reports of the existence of anthrax in four different towns
proved upon investigation to be unfounded. In one case the
cause of death was found to be a digestive disturbance. In
another case the cause of death was malnutrition. On the
cases reported from one of the four towns laboratory diagnosis
was negative, and the specimens submitted from another town
were too decomposed for a proper examination.
Some of the symptoms of this disease so resemble those of
hemorrhagic septicemia that a positive diagnosis can only be
made by laboratory examination. It is therefore our custom
in all cases reported to have such laboratory examination
No unusual prevalence of this disease has been known to
exist this year in surrounding States, so that the quarantine
order restricting shipments to Massachusetts has not been
Blackleg, or symptomatic anthrax, also called quarter ill, is
another disease which causes the death of large numbers of
animals in different parts of the world, especially such as
have not reached adult age. Young cattle are the animals
generally attacked, but the disease has been found in some
instances in sheep and goats. It is characterized by swelling,
oedema, and emphysema of the muscles and subcutaneous
tissues of the infected parts. Infection appears most commonly
in the shoulder or hind quarter, and presents certain character-
istic symptoms that are seldom mistaken for those of any
other disease. The same necessity for yearly preventive treat-
ment exists in the control of this disease as in that of anthrax.
Preventive treatment is very successful, and although the num-
ber of fatal cases of the disease in Massachusetts is very small
compared with the mortality records of other sections of the
country, we nevertheless are anxious to save as many animals
as possible from its ravages.
During the past year 17 animals have died from this disease
on 13 different premises, and the preventive inoculation has
been applied to 764 animals on 103 different premises in 36
towns, as follows: —
Adams, . . 1
Northampton, . . 2
Athol, . .
. Shelburne, .
Hard wick, .
Our records show that whereas the increase in the number
of deaths from this disease in Massachusetts during the past
year has been 10 animals, we have applied preventive inocu-
lation to 603 more animals than were inoculated last year.
This particular branch of the Department's work seems to be
increasing more or less rapidly as cattle owners become more
generally informed that their animals can be successfully pro-
tected against the disease without interfering with their health
Hemorrhagic Septicemia. — This is a disease which seems to
be increasingly prevalent each year, and has been diagnosed
not only in Massachusetts cattle but also in swine, large num-
bers of which have been found to be affected this year. Dif-
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49
ferential diagnosis is sometimes difficult in the field as between
anthrax, blackleg and hemorrhagic septicemia, and a positive
diagnosis in such cases can only be reached as the result of
laboratory examination of specimens from the carcasses.
Our records show that the disease has appeared in 16 head
of cattle on premises in 6 different towns, — Ashby, Harvard,
Lowell, Orange, Southbridge and Stur bridge. We have found
the disease this year causing considerable loss among swine,
and our attention has been directed in many instances to this
class of animals on account of our active work in the sup-
pression of hog cholera, as we are frequently called to herds
supposed to be affected with cholera where a careful diagnosis
proves the infection to be hemorrhagic septicemia. Treatment
agairist this disease by inoculation is being applied at several
different points, and a further reference to our work in this
direction is made later in this report under the heading "Labo-
ratory." This may be found on page 51.
Actinomycosis is another disease classified in the law as con-
tagious, a few cases of which are yearly brought to our atten-
tion. Whether or not this disease is contagious according to
the strict scientific meaning of the term is a question, but it
is certainly transmissible from one animal to another if con-
ditions are favorable, and therefore the Department deems it
necessary to quarantine animals affected with it. In some
instances it is allowable for the animals to be kept for the
purpose of fattening and then released for slaughter only.
Nine cases of actinomycosis have been reported to the De-
partment during the year, 1 each in the city of Attleboro and
the towns of Dudley, Lanesborough, Lee, Richmond, Ware-
ham, West Brookfield, and 2 cases in the town of Plymouth.
One case reported in 1916 has been killed during the past year
in the town of Tisbury. Of the 9 cases reported in 1917,
7 have already been killed and 2 have been released as having
been cured. One case was found at the Brighton Stockyards
in a cow brought in from the State of Maine, and the ani-
mal was immediately slaughtered.
Tuberculosis in Swine. — Cases of tuberculosis in swine are
occasionally reported to us by slaughtering establishments, all
the larger slaughtering concerns having been requested to re-
50 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. , [Jan.
port cases of this disease found at time of slaughter, as it
generally happens that its source can be found among cattle
on the premises where the swine have been kept, especially
if they have been in close contact with the cattle, or have been
fed on unpasteurized milk from tuberculous cattle. It is our
custom upon receipt of report of this sort to cause an exami-
nation to be made of the cattle on the premises where the
swine have been kept. Fourteen such cases have been re-
ported this year.
Mange. — This very troublesome disease seems to have been
much less prevalent in Massachusetts during the past year.
In 1916, 449 head of cattle in 17 different herds were reported
to this Department, whereas in 1917 only 157 head of cattle
have been reported as affected with the disease, found on 18
different premises, and a few horses on 3 different premises.
The premises on which this disease in cattle has appeared are
in Abington, Dartmouth, Duxbury, Grafton, Hanover, Hing-
ham, Lexington, Lincoln, New Marlborough, Phillipston, West
Newbury, Whitman and Williamstown, and the horses were
found in the cities of Boston, Chelsea and Newton.
Treatment of this disease is generally successful if the owner
or attendant can be induced to faithfully carry out simple
directions for local application and medicinal treatment, which
treatment is inexpensive but somewhat inconvenient to apply.
Foot-and-mouth disease has not appeared in Massachusetts
during the past year, although we have had reports of its
existence in the towns of Merrimac, Princeton and Westwood.
Prompt investigation of these reports, however, proved that
they were unfounded.
Diseases of Sheep. — As there has evidently been quite an
increase in the number of sheep kept in Massachusetts the
past year, we have found that there has been a corresponding
increase in reported cases of disease among them. Sheep are
especially susceptible to diseases of a parasitic nature, and the
one which seems to be the most prevalent is what is known
as nodular disease. Cases of this disease have been reported
from the towns of Auburn, Bedford, Blandford, Granville,
Lincoln and Norwood. This disease is due to an intestinal
parasite which causes serious loss through the death of many
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51
young animals, and also in the prevention of proper growth
The Department has frequently been called upon to make
examination of animals supposed to be affected with disease
of a contagious character, which upon thorough investigation
has been found not to be the case. As we are anxious at all
times, however, to be thoroughly informed as to an outbreak
of contagious disease, we frequently make investigation in cases
where the services of a private veterinarian should have been
obtained, because of the non-contagious character of the disease.
This investigation work has been frequently rendered upon
application of citizens.
Among the non-contagious diseases to which our attention
has been called during the past year may be mentioned the
following: acute indigestion, fistula, foot-rot, forage poisoning,
lice, lung worm, neck ail, rheumatism, stomatitis, stomach
worm, ulcerative vaginitis and sheep scab.
Particular attention may be called to a case of tuberculosis
in a horse in the town of Reading, diagnosis of which was
made on post-mortem examination and subsequently confirmed
in the laboratory. Tuberculosis in the horse is of such rare
occurrence that it is worthy of particular record.
During the year 71 specimens were submitted to the labo-
ratory for examination and diagnosis. The majority of these
were sent in during the latter part of the year, which would
indicate that there will be an increase in this work during the
coming year. Specimens were submitted from horses, cattle,
sheep, swine, goats and rabbits; and in order to make diag-
noses, bacteriological examinations, pathological examinations
and animal inoculations have been resorted to.
Inasmuch as commercial ophthalmic tuberculin which the
Department had been using was not giving dependable results,
it was decided that it would be advisable for the laboratory
to do experimental work along this line, and at the same time
to investigate the possibility of producing a tuberculin to be
used for retests which would give more accurate results than
the one which was being used. In August, therefore, the
52 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
laboratory started the production of tuberculin for depart-
mental use. Since that time 413 doses of special re test tuber-
culin, 383 doses of ophthalmic tuberculin, and 260 doses of
tuberculin as regularly used in the original test, have been
furnished. It has been found that with this special retest
tuberculin for subcutaneous use the results are much more
accurate than with any previously used. The results as checked
by post-mortem examinations are accurate in a larger per-
centage of cases, and if a reaction occurs it is much more
decisive and sharply defined than with other tuberculins. The
ophthalmic tuberculin has given us considerably better results
than commercial ophthalmic tuberculin, but we cannot depend
upon it to the same degree as upon the subcutaneous retest
tuberculin. However, with a combination of the two, accurate
results are being obtained in nearly all cases.
For some time past it has been apparent that hemorrhagic
septicemia is increasing in frequency and is causing consider-
able loss, particularly in swine. It is a rather common im-
pression among live-stock sanitary authorities that this disease
rarely or never exists in swine as an independent disease, but
is always associated with hog cholera. To arrive at any con-
clusion regarding this disease it first became necessary to de-
termine whether or not outbreaks of it do occur when not
associated with hog cholera. In this respect we were extremely
fortunate, inasmuch as we had by the simultaneous method
immunized the swine against hog cholera in the majority of
the larger piggeries in the State, and we were thus in a posi-
tion to study the disease when outbreaks occurred in such
immune herds. During the past year nine such outbreaks have
occurred. In 8 of the 9 hog cholera could be positively ex-
cluded, as was proven by animal inoculation, cultures and
filtration experiments. After being convinced that the disease
did exist independently our next duty was to endeavor to
control it. For this purpose we have used both living and
killed cultures of Bacillus suisepticus. In all instances we have
had better results with the use of living cultures than with
killed. In 8 of the 9 outbreaks the losses were stopped and
the outbreak controlled almost immediately after the inocu-
lation of the animals with the living culture. In all of these
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 53
cases the entire herd had been immunized against hog cholera
by the simultaneous method, at periods varying from six
months to two years previously. In the ninth outbreak the
animals which were infected had received the "serum only"
treatment, but not the simultaneous, inasmuch as they were
too young for that. The case was not diagnosed by the labo-
ratory, but by clinical symptoms and autopsy. Further in-
vestigation when results were not satisfactory proved that the
animals were very badly infested with lung worms, which
rendered this case of very little value for the purpose of judging
results. During the year we have produced a bacterial vaccine
for more than 400 swine and 150 head of cattle.
The following interesting points have arisen in our study
of this disease : —
1. We have never been able to reproduce the disease in
cattle or swine with the blood from animals suffering from it,
notwithstanding the fact that the same blood has given us
pure cultures of the causative agent, and microscopic smears
have shown the organism present in the blood in large numbers.
2. In some cases we have been able to reproduce the disease
by rabbit or guinea pig inoculations with this same blood, and
in other cases this has not been possible.
3. Pure cultures of Bacillus suisepticus and bovisepticus are
extremely difficult to keep, and vary greatly in their pathoge-
nicity. In some cases the cultures die out in five or six days,
while in some others we have been able to make transfers as
late as three months, and have found pathogenicity unat-
Considerable work has been done in attempting to make
an immune serum for Bacillus suisepticus infection by hyper-
immunizing cattle. To date, the results have been varied and
not satisfactory. In some cases it has protected rabbits and
guinea pigs, and in others it has failed to do so. Inasmuch
as the results of the inoculation of these animals with pure
cultures also vary, it is difficult to determine to what extent
the immune serum should be discredited, and how far the
cultures fail to reproduce the disease. Used on swine sick
with hemorrhagic septicemia, the results have not been satis-
54 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan.
NecrobaciUosi* has been diagnosed by the laboratory in 11
herds of swine and in 1 case of calves. In the case of calves
it is found to form abscesses on the inner side of the cheek
along the lower maxillary bone. In these abscesses Bacillus
necropkorus was present in large numbers, and the animals
showed symptoms of calf diphtheria. In swine the disease is
practically never seen in the intestinal form, as reported in
the west. When found in our garbage-fed herds it manifests
itself by a necrotic condition of the feet or mouth or both,
and does not cause a very heavy mortality. It is difficult to
obtain pure cultures of this organism by culture, and it is
usually necessary to resort to animal inoculation, making it
difficult to carry stock cultures of this organism. Considerable
work remains to be done along this line.
Annual Inspection of Farm Animals and Premises.
In compliance with a direct order of the Commissioner,
issued in January of each year to the inspectors of animals of
all towns and cities, a systematic inspection of all cattle, sheep,
swine and goats, and of the conditions under which they are
kept, is made. A date is set for the completion of this work,
following which detailed reports must be submitted on blanks
provided for the purpose. These reports when tabulated fur-
nish a comprehensive survey of the health and sanitation of
animals in Massachusetts kept for the production of food for
human consumption. They form an important basis on which
to formulate regulations for the control and eradication of
contagious diseases among live stock, and are of direct interest
in the study of certain public health problems. In addition
to much information of importance which the Department de-
rives from the tabulated report of the inspectors of animals,
and uses in numberless ways in its work of control and eradi-
cation of contagious disease, it furnishes the only correct
"census" of animals in Massachusetts that is made. This in-
formation is made use of by other State departments, and also
by different associations and individuals interested either in
dairying or the marketing of beef, pork or mutton, and by
persons engaged in general agricultural operations.
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 55
The following table is made up from the reports of the in-
spectors of animals : —
Total number of herds of cattle inspected, 28,582
Number of herds containing not over 5 dairy cows, . . . 23,100
Number of neat cattle inspected, 228,962
Number of dairy cows inspected, 152,141
Number of herds found clean and in good condition, . . . 28,132
Number of stables inspected, 29,450
Number of stables properly drained, 29,299
Number of stables well ventilated, 29,009
Number of stables sufficiently lighted, 28,711
Number of stables found clean, 28,608
Number of stables in which improvements were recommended, . 1,303
Number of herds of swine inspected, 10,573
Number of swine inspected, 81,351
Number of herds of swine garbage-fed, 2,140
Number of swine garbage-fed, 47,628
Number of sheep inspected, 13,875
Number of goats inspected, 1,307
Generally speaking, the work of inspection is efficiently
attended to, and has the practical result of rapidly correcting
unsatisfactory conditions of stabling and of eliminating diseased
The service rendered by local inspectors of animals in the
many directions where they are available is of very great aid
in the Department's work. They are in many instances the first
officials notified of outbreak or existence of contagious disease,
and much depends upon their alertness and prompt attention
to the duty of quarantine and early report to the Department.
Were it not for efficient service by them, much valuable time
would be lost in many instances. Their service in reporting
arrival, and in subsequently identifying interstate animals in
accordance with our regulations, enables us to more promptly
attend to the necessary duties in connection with such cases.
From time to time additional inspections are ordered at
places where contagious disease has been found, and where the
original recommendations for improvement of sanitation have
not been carried out. These additional inspections are made
by Department agents when the inspectors of animals for any
reason have not been able to bring about the improvements
Appropriation for the salary of the Commissioner, chapter 40,
Special Acts of 1917, .
Total expenditure, .....
Appropriation for clerical assistance and contin-
gent expenses, chapter 40, Special Acts of 1917,
Brought forward from 1916 appropriation, .
Credit on account of temporary increase,
Amount forwarded from extraordinary expenses,
Total amount appropriated,
Expended during the year for the following
purposes : —
Salaries of clerks and stenographers,
Express and messenger service,
Extra clerical service,
Other printing, .
Telephone and telegrams, .
Stationery and office supplies,
Expenses of the Commissioner,
. 894 00
Appropriation for the extermination of contagious diseases among
domestic animals, chapter 40, Special Acts of 1917,
Expended during the year for the following purposes : —
1,168 head of cattle condemned and killed on ac-
count of tuberculosis in 1914, 1915, 1916 and
1917, paid for in 1917,
254 horses condemned and killed on account
glanders and farcy in 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916
and 1917, paid for in 1917, .
Services of regular agents, ....
Services of per diem agents,
Labor hired, ......
Traveling and other expenses of agents,
Veterinary supplies, .....
Expenses of killing and burial,
Ear-tags, punches, etc., ....
Laboratory and experimental expenses,
Expense of travel allowed inspectors of animals,
Quarantine expenses, .....
Total expenditure, ....
Unexpended balance, ....
— $146,000 00
1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 57
The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year
There has been received during the year from the sale of
hides and carcasses of condemned animals $1,209.87, and for
the testing of cattle for non-resident owners $3,002.26, a total
amount of $4,212.13.
Claims for 85 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuber-
culous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on
proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to
Claims for 32 horses condemned and killed during the year
because affected with glanders remain unsettled, to be paid
for on proof of claims, the allowance for which under the law
will amount "to $1,571.
LESTER H. HOWARD,
Commissioner of Animal Industry.